Friday, December 25, 2009

سمحت العاصمة المكسيكية الاثنين بزواج المثليين،













سمحت العاصمة المكسيكية الاثنين بزواج المثليين، الامر الذي يشكل سابقة في اميركا اللاتينية.





عدل نواب الجمعية الوطنية في الاقليم الفدرالي المكسيكي الذي يشكل العاصمة، مادة في القانون المدني المحلي كان تنص على ان "الزواج هو الرباط المستند الى حرية الاختيار بين رجل وامرأة". والزواج بين مثليي الجنس محظر قانونا في كل دول اميركا اللاتينية.



وقال اوسكار اوليفر المتحدث باسم النائب اليساري دافي رازو ابرز الداعين الى المشروع انه تمت الموافقة على زواج المثليين "بموافقة 39 صوتا على الاقتراح ومعارضة عشرين وامتناع خمسة" نواب. ويتولى رئاسة بلدية مكسيكو اليساري مارسيلو ايبرار الذي ينتمي الى حزب الثورة الديموقراطية.



وتضم جمعية الاقليم الفدرالي 66 نائبا ينتمي 42 منهم الى حزب الثورة الديموقراطية او يعتبرون قريبين منه

How to Know the Difference Between Love, Infatuation and Lust - wikiHow

How to Know the Difference Between Love, Infatuation and Lust - wikiHow

How to Attract a Tomboy - wikiHow

How to Attract a Tomboy - wikiHow

How to Be a Tomboy - wikiHow

How to Be a Tomboy - wikiHow

How to Get a Tomboy to Have a Crush on You - wikiHow

How to Get a Tomboy to Have a Crush on You - wikiHow

How to Answer when Your Straight Girlfriend Asks if You (a Lesbian) Are Attracted to Her - wikiHow

How to Answer when Your Straight Girlfriend Asks if You (a Lesbian) Are Attracted to Her - wikiHow

How to Find the Right Lesbian Partner - wikiHow

How to Find the Right Lesbian Partner - wikiHow

How to Get a Lesbian Girlfriend - wikiHow

How to Get a Lesbian Girlfriend - wikiHow

How to Be a Lipstick Lesbian: 5 steps - wikiHow

How to Be a Lipstick Lesbian: 5 steps - wikiHow

How to Show Others You Are Not a Lesbian - wikiHow

How to Show Others You Are Not a Lesbian - wikiHow

How to Make a Girl Want You Back - wikiHow

How to Make a Girl Want You Back - wikiHow

How to Get a Girl to Kiss You if You Are a Girl - wikiHow

How to Get a Girl to Kiss You if You Are a Girl - wikiHow

How to Tell if Your Best Friend Is Lesbian - wikiHow

How to Tell if Your Best Friend Is Lesbian - wikiHow

How to Be a Butch Lesbian - wikiHow

How to Be a Butch Lesbian - wikiHow

How to Get Your Girlfriend to Kiss or Hug You More Often - wikiHow

How to Get Your Girlfriend to Kiss or Hug You More Often - wikiHow

How to Give Someone a Hickey - wikiHow

How to Give Someone a Hickey - wikiHow

How to Kiss Passionately - wikiHow

How to Kiss Passionately - wikiHow

How to Flirt Physically - wikiHow

How to Flirt Physically - wikiHow

How to Flirt - wikiHow

How to Flirt - wikiHow

How to Make Any Girl Want to Kiss You - wikiHow

How to Make Any Girl Want to Kiss You - wikiHow

How to Make a Girl Become Obsessed with You - wikiHow

How to Make a Girl Become Obsessed with You - wikiHow

How to Encourage a Woman to Fall in Love with You - wikiHow

How to Encourage a Woman to Fall in Love with You - wikiHow

How to Deal With Falling in Love - wikiHow

How to Deal With Falling in Love - wikiHow

How to Make Out - wikiHow

How to Make Out - wikiHow

How to Remove a Hickey: 9 steps (with video) - wikiHow

How to Remove a Hickey: 9 steps (with video) - wikiHow

Thursday, December 17, 2009

Basshunter - I Promised Myself (Official Video) (Out Monday)



"LYRICS:

I promised myself
I promised I'd wait for you
The midnight hour
I know you'll shine on through
I promised myself
I promised the world to you
I gave you flowers
You made my dreams come true
How many of us out there
Feel the need to run and look for shelter
I promised myself
That I'd say a prayer for you
A brand new tomorrow
Where all you wish comes true
I promised myself
That I'd make it up to you
My sister and brother
Know I'm in love with you
How many of us out there
Feel the pain of losing what was once there
God I know what people say about her
No mistake, who can live without love
I promise myself
How many of us out there
Feel the pain, of losing what was once there
God I know what people say about her
No mistake, who can live without love
I promised myself
I promised I'd wait for you
The midnight hour
I know you'll shine on through
I promised myself
I promised the world to you
I gave you flowers
You made my dreams come true
In the midnight hour I will wait for you
I will wait for you, I will wait for you
Category: Music"

Sunday, November 1, 2009

Why Do Butch Women Want to Act Like Men?




Do butch women want to be men? Why would someone want to look like or imitate a man? If I wanted to date a man, I would.






Answer: These are just some of the statements I have heard in reference to butch women.

I find that in the lesbian community there is a lot of ignorance and often intolerance of people who are interested in exploring the more masculine side of themselves.



I am not totally sure where it comes from, but my guess is it stems from internalized homophobia -- people who are concerned with how gays and lesbians look to the outside world. Those same people who have a problem with butch-looking women, also don’t like to see the “flamboyant” gay men represented in the media.



But the truth is, these representations are just part of the diversity of who we are as a LGBT community. As well as the straight community. One of my best friends is a very butch straight woman. (Who gets mistaken for lesbian often, especially when she’s hanging out with me!) She is very aware of how she presents and claims it has to do with being raised on a farm. She could be right, but then again, her sister who was raised on the same farm is very feminine.



I also think it is important to acknowledge that we all have elements of masculine and feminine within us, no matter what our sexual orientation. Just like there is a Kinsey Scale of sexual orientation, which goes across a spectrum, there is a scale of gender expression.



It is my opinion that being butch, femme or somewhere in between is an inborn trait, much like sexual orientation. Personally, I was acting like a tomboy, never liked dresses or dolls, long before I had any inkling of what being a lesbian was. I did not choose to be this way, simply who I was born to be.



Some butches love to work on cars, watch football and do projects around the house. Others do not. Some femmes like to work on cars, watch football and do projects around the house.



Butches are women. They do not want to be men. People who are born women and want to be men are called transsexuals.



Butches are women who feel comfortable expressing the masculine side of themselves.

 
Question: Do Butch Women Like to Be Touched Sexually?
 

 
Answer: The simple and easy answer is there is more than one kind of butch lesbian. Hell the person you saw in the bar may not even identify as butch. You really can’t judge a book by it’s cover.


For some being a butch has to do with how they are in bed. For others it is more how they present themselves to the world or how they feel on the inside. You might look at someone as say, "She's butch" based on how she looks, but she might not identify that way at all.



Some butches are very into the butch/femme dichotomy and are only attracted to other femmes. Others only like to date other butches. Some don't have a preference one way or another

How do I know I'm Lesbian?

How do I know I'm Lesbian?

Answer: I wish there were an easy answer to the question, "Am I a lesbian?" but there is not. I think that people can be attracted to different people at different points in their lives. You admit that you are attracted to both males and females. Have you considered that you might be bisexual?


You are wondering if it is a phase. Even if it is a phase, that is no reason to discount where you are right now. You may find as you get older you are attracted to one sex more than the other. Or you may continue to be attracted to both sexes.



You will know you are a lesbian when you are ready to label yourself as one. For now, just be 17 and unsure. It's really okay.



As you continue to figure it out, here are some things to consider:



•When you are with a girl you are attracted to, does your belly do flip-flops?

•When you hear love songs on the radio, do you think of guys or girls?

•Who do you fantasize about?

•If you have the choice of spending time with a girl you like or a boy you like, which do you choose?

•Who do you enjoy kissing more? Men or women?

•Please don't think you have to sleep with someone to figure it out. While sex is a big part of sexual orientation, it is not the only part. Listen also with your heart and your head.

Be easy on yourself. In time you will figure it out. Coming out is one of the hardest things a person will ever do. I encourage you to talk with supportive friends, read books with gay and lesbian characters, attend a gay youth or coming out support group.

Am I a lesbian? But many heterosexual and bisexual women ask themselves the same question and come away with a different answer. So, how do you know if you are a lesbian or if you're just curious?




If I only had a dollar for every time I've been asked this question, I would be a rich woman today! Struggling with one's sexual attractions is very common and not just with young people. I hear just as often from women who have been married 20 years or more. But at age 19, relax and give yourself time to explore your feelings.



I know many of you are looking for cut and dried ways to determine your sexual orientation. Perhaps a quiz you can take. If only it were that easy!! Unfortunately, determining your sexual orientation is not that simple. It is something that will take time and self-reflection to determine. Talking to a therapist or a lesbian coming out group may help.



Some women identify as lesbian after having feelings for one woman. Others wait to label themselves only afters years of attractions and relationships with other women. Some will remain attracted to both men and women and call themselves bisexual.



The important thing to remember is that your sexual orientation is not something you can choose. You can, however, choose to act on it or not. If you are happily married and find yourself attracted to a female friend, it might be quite alarming to discover that you are bisexual. But it does not mean that you need to act on those feelings.



Okay, having said that. How do you know if you are a lesbian or not? Consider the following:



•Are your feelings for women stronger than your feelings for men?

•Do you get more excited about the idea of kissing a man or kissing a woman?

•Who do you see yourself settling down with in the future?

•Are you more physically attracted to men's or women's bodies?

•Who do you fantasize about more, men or women?

Answering these questions may help you figure out what your sexual orientation is. You may be lesbian, bisexual or straight. My best advice to you is to be patient with yourself. Whereas it is empowering to label yourself, the process of being sure is much more important.



Remember whether you are lesbian, straight or bisexual you will be most happy and fulfilled if you live a life true to yourself.

How do I know if I’m a lesbian or not?


Lesbians are women who are attracted to other women. This can be a physical attraction, emotional attraction or sexual attraction. If you’re a woman attracted to women, you might be a lesbian. Or you might be bisexual or you might simply be a straight women who is attracted to a friend. It may take you some time to determine which one you are.





Some women claim to have known from a very early age that they were lesbian, or at least knew that there was something “different” about themselves. Others don’t come out until their forties, fifties and even later, after having spent years in a heterosexual marriage. Whatever your situation, what is most important is that you’re taking the time now to try and figure it out and get to know yourself better.



I think I’m a lesbian, but I’ve never had sex with a girl.





That’s okay. Most straight people know that they are attracted to the opposite sex before they ever actually have sex. There’s no need to rush to have sex to “find out” if you’re a lesbian or not. Do what feels natural to you.



What percentage of the population is lesbian?





A statistic like that is hard to figure out. There’s no census form that counts gay and lesbian people. And even if there were, people have good reason to keep things like that under wraps. Even though we’ve made some strides in the last decade, in most states it is still legal to fire someone because they are gay or lesbian.



A study of human sexuality in the 1950s determined that most people have some degree of attraction to both sexes. The generally accepted figure is that ten percent of the population is gay or lesbian.



Is lesbianism normal?

Lesbianism is normal for lesbians. You cannot determine who you are attracted to any more than you can determine the color of your eyes.



How do I meet other lesbians?





Where can I turn for more help?



The internet is a great resource. Spend some time browsing these pages. If you’re under 21, check out the youth resources. Read about bisexuality. If you’re Black, Asian, Latina or Native American, check out the resources for Lesbians of color.

How to Cure Lesbian Bed Death and Keep Passion Burning


How to Cure Lesbian Bed Death and Keep Passion Burning



I don’t think lesbians are the only ones who suffer from “bed death.” But lesbians sure do have a reputation for losing the libido after a few years together. Does your relationship have to end up in bed death? No! Not if you don’t want it to. But like most things, sustaining a healthy sexual relationship takes work. Here are some tips for keeping sex in your lesbian relationship.


1. Keep it Sweet

I once heard lesbian sex expert Joann Loulan say, if you’re bickering about the dishes and dirty laundry, you aren’t going to be getting any. As women, most of us are especially sensitive. If you want to get your sweetie in the mood, treat her sweetly. Don’t dig on her for little things. Remind her daily of all the reasons you love her.

Here are some tips to keep love alive.

2. Make Sex Dates

If you want to keep romance alive, you make romantic dates with her. If you want to keep sex alive, you need to make sex dates with her. Talk it over and put it in your calendar. It’s no secret that passion dissipates over time. If you haven’t had sex in a while, waiting for it to “just happen” isn’t going to happen.

Set aside a Friday evening or Sunday afternoon. Turn off your cell phones and turn on each other. Whether you plan to spend half the day in bed or just jump onto each other for a quickie, doesn’t matter. What matters is that you both show up and get it on.



3. Bring Fantasy Into the Bedroom

Everyone has a fantasy. What is yours? Do you secretly have a crush on a movie star? Did you always wish you had sex in an airplane bathroom? Does the thought of getting it on with the UPS driver make your panties damp?

Contrary to the belief of some lesbians, fantasy is good and healthy. Fantasizing does not mean you’re not into your partner. If you and your lover have never role played before, talk about what your secret desires are. If your partner is leery, let her take the lead. Here are some popular lesbian sexual fantasies to check out.



4. Try Sex Toys

When you’re getting tired of all the clothes in your closet, you go out and buy some new ones. The same is true for your sexual repertoire. The same-old, same-old may get her off time and time again, but it just gets boring. Add some spice by trying out a fun new sex toy. Vibrators come in all kinds of sizes and shapes. If either of you likes penetration, perhaps a new dildo and harness are in order. There are sex toys for every predilection, from anal plugs and breast clamps to g-spot stimulators. Change your wardrobe, get a new sex toy! Shop for one together, or surprise her on one of your sex date nights.

5. Watch Porn

There’s nothing like watching other people get it on to get you in the mood. There is all kinds of great lesbian porn out there now, so check some out. You will probably get turned on and you might learn a few new bedroom tricks. And don’t feel you have to limit yourself to lesbian porn. Many lesbians enjoy watching gay male or straight porn.

6. Read and Learn

Sex is like anything. You can always learn more and get better at it. Read lesbian erotica for stimulation and inspiration. Better yet, read it aloud to each other. Buy a lesbian sex guide like Felice Newman’s The Whole Lesbian Sex Book.

7. Be Willing

More than anything, keeping sex alive in a relationship is dependent on both partners making a commitment to do so. Be willing to take a risk and tell your partner what your needs are. Be open to hearing her desires.

8. Your Ideas

Do you have a creative idea for bring passion back to a sexless relationship? Share your lesbian bed death solutions.

Flirting Tips for Lesbians

Flirting Tips for Lesbians


How does a woman flirt with another woman? That can be tricky, especially if you do not know the sexual orientation of the object of your flirt.





There's nothing like having someone flirt with you to boost your self-esteem. Whether or not you return the attraction, it feels good to know that someone finds you attractive. Flirting is an art. It's a two-way game. You have to be able to read your partner's interest and comfort in the flirtation in order to know how to proceed.





But, if done properly, there is nothing better or more exciting than letting the electricity grow between you two in the beginning stages of a relationship. Flirting can be subtle or overt. I prefer the subtle kind.





Here's some tips for flirting:



•When you're out together, try to sit near her. Notice if she moves closer or farther away. When you're sitting on a couch and your thighs touch, what does she do? Does she let it stay or inch away?

•Look her in the eye when you are talking. Hold the stare for a little longer than you would a normal conversation.

•It may sound corny, but open a door for her to walk through.

•If you're sitting across from each other, gently put your hand on hers. Don't move it away unless she does.

•Tell her she looks nice tonight. Compliment her hair or outfit.

•Find out what makes her laugh. There's nothing like humor to cut the tension and loosen you both up.

•Offer to get her a drink if you're at a party or bar together.

•Touch her hand or shoulder when you hand her a drink.

•Tell her you've been thinking about her.

•Call her just to say hi and see what's she's been doing.

•Send her a little note that says you enjoyed spending time together. An email is okay, hand written and dropped at her door or mailed is better.

Be careful not to over do it. You don't want to seem like a stalker. Look for signs that your flirtation is unwanted. Does she get off the phone quickly when you call? Do you send her long flowery e-mails, only to get one line answers in return? If so, back off and let her come to you.



Good luck and most of all, have fun!

Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Information on the situation for homosexuals in Kuwait

Information on the situation for homosexuals in Kuwait
Homosexuality is strictly forbidden in Kuwait, . Kuwaiti law is strongly influenced by the extreme muslim sharia laws. gays lin Kuwait have been arrested . A university professor faced a lot of controversy for discussing lesbianism in 1998, but she still teaches according to information I have received.In spite of the harsh laws of Kuwait, homosexuality can be quite open, and cruising for sex is quite common, especially among men. Even straight men cruise for gay sex, as the possibility of pre-marital sex with a woman is slim. It all seems to be a matter of who you talk to, where you go and how you act. Many hotels will reportedly tolerate bringing a man to the room, whereas a woman guest is unthinkable.Extreme caution is advised in the beginning.Kuwait is one of the world's richest countries, ruled in practice by one family, the Sabah's.kuwait was occupied by Iraq from August 2, 1990 until the Gulf War liberation in 26 February 1991. On November 10
Kuwaiti gays ask permission to get organised by Georgina Roberts
The gay and trans community in Kuwait has approached the government requesting an official gay rights organisation. The majority Muslim country currently does not allow such groups to exist, despite a growing number of openly gay and transgender Kuwaitis. According to online news service, Al Arabiya, the gay rights request follows the recent Upholding Ethics report from the Kuwaiti National Council. The report reveals $2m (£1m) has been allocated to combat the rise of homosexuality and a proposal to criminalise "cross-dressing." Homosexuality and transvestism are currently prohibited in Kuwait, but this is considered a crime of morality and is rarely enforced by law. The proposed amendment to the penal code would make transvestism punishable by a 1000 dinars (£1,780) fine or a jail sentence. The oil-rich country of three million people was invaded by Saddam Hussein in 1991, sparking the first Gulf War. It is relatively liberal and democratic compared to its Muslim neighbours. It has an elected national council and women gained the right to vote in 2006. However, homosexuality between men is punishable People entering Kuwait must prove they are not HIV positive and the "publication and distribution of any writing or images that are immoral" is against the law
June 18, 2008 14
Kuwaiti transexuals arrested and beaten to 'protect' citizens
by Staff Writer,
PinkNews.co.uk
In an attempt to 'protect its youth' the Kuwaiti government is stepping up a campaign to 'rid' the country of gay and transexual citizens. The Social Vice committee in Kuwait is in the process of organising a national conference in order to define the definition of 'social vices' and the ways to crackdown on them, said a former head of the committee. Talking to the Kuwaiti newspaper Alaqabs, Mr Valid Tabtabii, a Kuwaiti MP, said that it is the responsibility of the parliament to undertake this campaign, especially since the country's constitution states that the state has the responsibility to protect its youth. Facing increasing criticism about the way they handle social issues, he labelled those criticisms as unjustified and accused his opponents of ignorance. "Mankind is against anything he doesn't understand," he said. The Committee also has the support of the Parliament, as it was formed on a request from 43 out of 50 MPs. It has so far played a significant role in the Kuwaiti society in cracking down on 'social misconduct.' Mr. Tabatabaii said that in the past, the Committee has tried to crackdown on "girly boys" and homosexuals, who promote crime and sexual immorality in the country. This crackdown happened in schools and other public places, without violating people's privacy. Last December, Kuwait's parliament passed a law that criminalised “imitating the appearance of the opposite sex.” The amendment states that "any person committing an indecent act in a public place, or imitating the appearance of a member of the opposite sex, shall be subject to imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year or a fine." Subsequent roundups netted at least 16 suspects, New York-based Human Rights Watch reported, adding that three detainees were beaten. The only known targets of the new Kuwaiti law have been transgender people. Kuwait does not allow transgender people to change their legal identity to match the gender in which they live or to adapt their physical appearance through gender reassignment surgery. In September 2007 Al Arabiya reported a new government campaign to "combat the growing phenomenon of gays and transsexuals" in Kuwait. Mr. Mohammad Haiif, the spokesperson for the Parliamentary Study Group on Social Vice, told reporters yesterday that " those suffering from queerness are in need of medical treatment for hormonal imbalance, and by doing so, we help them, and not harm them."
• In Kuwait, “police raided a party where homosexuals were allegedly celebrating a wedding,” and a law was approved “to impose a fine of $3,450 and/or one year’s imprisonment for those imitating the opposite sex and it was full of lesbians and gays and most girls run away and get away
6LGBT rights in Kuwait
Kuwait is a Muslim nation and thus both homosexuality and cross-dressing are treated as crimes and signs of immorality. However, as is the case with other "moderate" Muslim nations in the Middle East, their are few recorded cases of the criminal laws being enforced.Contents1 Criminal Code2 Printing and Publication Law3 Civil Rights4 Marriage & Family5 AIDS/HIV6 ReferencesCriminal CodeSeveral Articles in the national penal code are used to prohibit hommosexuality between consenting adults in private and to restrict the public discussion of sexual orientation and gender identity.Article 193 of the Penal Code punishes homosexuality between men, over the age of 21, with up to seven years imprisonment [1]. If the conduct involves persons under the age of 21, then imprisonment can be for a maximum of ten years [[2]. .Article 204 prohibits the public encouragment of "immoral acts" and the publication and distribution of any writing or images that are immoral.In 1996, the Kuwaiti police arrested seven Filipino hairdressers, working in Kuwait, and jailed them for homosexuality and prositution. They were all soon deported with the Kuwaiti government informing the Philippine Embassy that it would not tolerate the existence of gay foreign workers or their sexual conduct[3].[edit]Printing and Publication LawFirst enacted in 1961, the national law has several regulations that are used against LGBT themes.Article 26 bans the, "publication that violates public morality or persons' dignity or personal freedom...". [4].Article 37 gives the Office of Printing and Publications the power to ban the importation of publications that will harm "public morals" or the, "the sanctity of religions." [5].In 1997, Dr Alia Shoaib was dismissed from her professorial chair in Kuwait University for suggesting that homosexuality existed in the emirate. Her comments were printed in the "al-Hadaf" magazine, which faced charges for obscenity. The Kuwati Information Minister said the professor's comments had "defamed the University" and that, "We know that there are gays in Kuwait, they are hidden and should remain so" [6]. That same year the famous Kuwaiti novlist, Leila Othman, aced obscenity charges for her novel titled "The Departure" which included stories featuring same-sex relationships.In 2000, the Kuwaiti appeals courts overturned the lowers courts criminal convictions against these two women, but upheld the heavy fines [7]. Civil RightsNo civil rights legislation exists to prohibit public or private sector discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. No LGBT association or interest group is officially allowed to exist, although their is some online rumors about an underground LGBT associations with such names as "Gay Freedom" [8].In 2003, Kuwait's Civil Bench of the Court of First Instance dismissed the case of a 25-year-old woman who wanted to change her name on official documents after undergoing a sex-change operation in Thailand [9]. Marriage & FamilyKuwaiti law does not recognize same-sex marriages, civil unions or domestic partnership benefits. AIDS/HIVIn 1988, the Kuwaiti Ministry of Public Health published a report on HIV infections in Kuwait [10], especially the person's nationality, martial status and sexual orientation. In 2004 a United Nations report on HIV in Kuwait found that about six percent of known transmission cases were the result of unprotected sexual contact between men [data.unaids.org/Publications/Fact-Sheets01/kuwait_en.pdf].In 1992, the Kuwaiti national assembly outlawed the knowing transmission of HIV to another person. Foreign residents must prove that they do not have HIV or AIDS to enter or remain in Kuwait [11].In 2007, a seminar titled "AIDS- The Epidemic of the Century", was held by the Kuwait Medical Society (KMS). Officially the number of Kuwaiti infected with HIV is small and thus the pandemic is often seen as a problem caused by so-called "foreign" problems; i.e. homosexuality [12].

Pansexuality


Pansexuality


Pansexuality, or omnisexuality[1] is a sexual orientation characterized by the potential for aesthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire for people, regardless of their gender identity or biological sex. Some pansexuals suggest that they are gender-blind; that gender and sex are insignificant or irrelevant in determining whether they will be sexually attracted to others.[2] For others, an individual's sex, gender expression, or gender identity can be a key factor of attraction, despite the pansexual individual's wide range of sex and gender attractions.
The word pansexual is derived from the Greek prefix pan-, meaning "all". In its simplest form, pansexuality denotes the potential of sexual attraction to all genders and beings. It is intended to negate the idea of two genders (as expressed by bi-)
The adjective pansexual may also be applied to organizations or events. In this context, the term usually indicates an openness to the involvement of people of all genders and sexual orientations in said organization/event, as well as the pansexual sexual identity.
[edit] Pansexuality compared to bisexuality
Bisexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by attraction to both the same gender and the opposite gender. Unlike pansexuality, it does not specifically include people who fall outside the gender binary. Pansexuality has been described as a "means to skip the binaries and essentialism of 'bi'."[3]
However, many people who identify as bisexual are actually attracted to people who fall outside the gender binary. These people, who could be described as pansexual, have a variety of reasons for identifying as bisexual, including widespread unfamiliarity with the term "pansexual" as well as its negative connotations for some people. Some define bisexual as "attraction to people from more than one gender".[4] Others contrast "attraction to people of multiple genders" with pansexuality's "attraction regardless of gender".




in latin pan= everything ya3nee man o woman at the same time


Pansexualityهذ النوع من الناس يقدر يحب الشخص اللي يبيه حتى لو كان من نفس جنسه يعني اذا كانت بنت تقدر تحب بنت او ولد يقدر يحب ولد وما عنده مانعولا تقولون لي بويات ولا جنوس البويات مسترجلات والجنوس نعومين , هذولي ما عندهم جذيبس القاسم المشترك انهم ممكن يحبون اي شخص بغض النظر عن جنسه

هي التصرفات الجنسية للإنسان, و فيها ان الشخص مايفرق سواء اللي جدامه ذكر انثى لأن بالنسبه له الحب سواء للأثنين, يعني عادي لو يحب ذكر وعادي لو يحب انثى

يعني مو لازم لما نسمع بنت اتحب بنت يعني اهي بويه !!! هذا غلط كبير ..هالنوع معترف بجنسه وبانتمائه له.. مايرفض جنسه الطبيعي مثل البويات او الجنوس بس مشكلتهم انهم يميلون للجنسين معا ..

مع ان الصراحة في الشرح مال الويكيبيديا مو قادرة آفهم شالفرق بينه و بين Bisexuality آحسه نفس الشي آن يحبون الجنسين

Biosexual اهو ميل الشخص للجنسين ..يعني ممكن ( ذكر وذكر / ذكر وانثى / انثى وأنثى )


1- Hitrosexual واهو الميل للجنس الآخر واهو الشي الطبيعي ..2- Biosexual واهو الميل للجنسين ..3- homesexual واهو الميل لنفس الجنس اللي اهو المثلية الجنسيه .. ( lez - gay )


"Teacher jailed for lesbian affair with pupil





A public school mistress, who was "pressured" into a lesbian affair by a 15-year-old pupil, wept today as she was jailed for 15 months.
Music teacher Helen Goddard - nicknamed "the jazz lady" - befriended the youngster as they met for coffee after lessons.
Related articles

Their relationship eventually became sexual, a development the youngster's parents scathingly condemned as a "complete betrayal" of trust.
London's Southwark Crown Court heard that the five-month affair included an overnight stay at her home and a romantic weekend in Paris.
Their forbidden trysts remained a secret until the school, which cannot be named for legal reasons, received an anonymous tip-off about what was happening.
Care workers were immediately contacted and police alerted.
When officers raided the teacher's housing estate maisonette in Thornham Street, Greenwich, south east London, they arrested the 26-year-old and seized various sex toys including vibrators and "fluffy handcuffs".
Goddard, a former child music prodigy, admitted six sample counts of sexual activity with the girl between February and July this year.
The disgraced teacher, wearing a white blouse and a black waistcoat and trousers bowed her head and repeatedly wiped tears from her eyes as Judge Anthony Pitts said: "This is a difficult case. The evidence showed you were having a full-on sexual relationship with the girl for many months.
"She has made it clear that the sexual contact between you was consensual and she says in her statement that in fact it was instigated by her.
"It is, of course, against the law to engage in sexual activity with a person under 16, even with her consent. These are serious offences in their own right. But the particularly aggravating feature evident here of course is that you were her music teacher throughout this period and from well before the sexual relationship started."
That meant a relationship such as theirs remained illegal until after the girl turned 18.
The judge said it was clear from the character references he had received that Goddard had been a "big hit" with her pupils.
One of her former colleagues, noticing girls "flocking to her room at break times", said she even warned her of the "dangers of being over-friendly and too popular".
"You are clearly an intelligent woman and a talented musician with a degree in music."
The judge continued: "Pupils are susceptible to abuse by those who teach them. The teacher's position of authority, their influence on the class, pupils' admiration of them, pupils' desires to be liked, their desire to impress or to be a special favourite makes it easy for a teacher, who so wishes, to take advantage of their pupils and start a relationship.
"In this case you clearly knew it was wrong to a start a sexual relationship with her and you knew the dangers to your career as a teacher.
"The relationship involved a fair degree of deception not only in respect of the school but also to the girl's parents. They made a statement they felt you betrayed their trust. They feel particularly betrayed by the deception of the Paris weekend.
"This case is so serious that an immediate prison sentence is inevitable."
The judge added she would also be banned from working with children for life and have to register as a sex offender for 10 years.
However, he had decided not to accede to a prosecution request for a sexual offences prevention order, which among other things would have banned her from seeing the youngster for an automatic five years.
The judge, who was told both the youngster and her former teacher genuinely loved each other, continued: "I have considered what has been said by the defence.
"I am conscious of the fact that whatever one thinks about what happened in this case, the girl appears to inevitably have suffered from what happened and this matter coming to light, and I have her interest in mind as well when I decided not to make this order.
"I think it would be draconian and unnecessarily cruel to her as well."
Goddard grew up in Farnborough, Hants, where she played the trumpet from an early age and was a member of Hampshire County Youth Band.
She was one of only five young musicians from England invited to play at the Sydney Olympics opening ceremony in 2000.
She not only raised the money for her air fare but practised for up to 13 hours a day in the weeks leading up to the event.
Regina Naughton, prosecuting, said the affair came to light on July 7 when the school reception received an anonymous email headed "concerned parent" and expressing concerns about a sexual relationship between a teacher and a pupil.
The following day it was followed by another, identifying the defendant and the girl and saying: "Please act quickly."
Once social services and the police had been informed, the girls' parents were contacted.
The barrister said when officers first spoke to the child she denied anything wrong had occurred, but 24 hours later confessed to her mother.
"She said she, the girl, had instigated the relationship and felt guilty for the situation she had put Ms Goddard in, and that she wished to continue the relationship.
"She also told her mother she was devastated that Ms Goddard would go to prison, and that she would not commit suicide as she wished to say goodbye to her."
In a later interview the youngster insisted that while "emotional and mature" for her age she poured out her problems to the defendant.
The support she received in return led to friendship and left her regarding her teacher as a sister.
"She describes the pair having feelings for one another, and that that was not planned or expected," said counsel.
"This developed into them flirting with each other and sending text messages to each other. They went for a walk one day and she describes kissing Ms Goddard on the lips, which Ms Goddard responded to."
The youngster also spoke of lying to her parents to stay at the trumpet teacher's home where they shared a bed and kissed.
Further lies and more overnight stays followed as the relationship developed.
Ms Naughton said the pair also had "sexual relations" at her parents' home.
In June, having declared they "loved each other" and told her parents she was going to spend a weekend with a relative in France, the girl and her teacher caught a plane to Paris.
"As part of the weekend, they went to the Gay Pride March," said Ms Naughton.
As the interview continued, the teenager told officers how her teacher spoke to her about leaving her job so their relationship would not have to stop.
She also spoke of the moment their affair came to light and how she urged the defendant to "lie and that they would get away with it".
Later she admitted "both of them knew what they were doing was legally wrong, but that it felt right". Since then the matter had "made her miserable and destroyed her".
Ms Naughton told the court that apart from the sex toys - which the defendant insisted had been used only on an ex-girlfriend - police also seized her mobile phone. The girl's was also studied.
They revealed 157 texts from the youngster to her teacher and 60 replies.
"Many of these were of an intimate and affectionate nature, some explicitly sexual."
One from the teacher read: "It's gonna be a beautiful day. I love you, you were on my mind all night."
The barrister also read an impact statement from the girl's parents.
In it they spoke of Goddard going "out of her way" to befriend them and their "vulnerable" daughter.
"However, under the guise of helping her we now understand that for over five months she was betraying our trust and our daughter's."
They continued: "She did not stay true to her professional responsibility."
The statement also spoke of the way they felt "particularly betrayed" by the Paris weekend, insisting: "We are deeply upset by the impact on our daughter by Ms Goddard's actions, which has serious and enduring consequences."
Explaining their daughter was now the subject of "intense teenage curiosity", they added they did not believe Goddard "fully understands the seriousness of breaking the boundary and completely breaching the trust of a teacher-pupil relationship".
But Anthony Heaton-Armstrong, defending, said his client was now "very remorseful" about what had happened and insisted she was "not in any sense a sexual predator".

Monday, September 14, 2009

A finger on sexuality










A finger on sexuality


BBC

Finger length may be an indication of sexual orientation, a controversial study has shown.

Scientists from California found that lesbian women have a greater difference in length between their ring finger and index finger than straight women do.

The same pattern was also found for homosexual men - but only when the researchers looked at those males that had several older brothers.

The scientists from the University of California at Berkeley were testing a theory that higher levels of androgen - male sex hormones - in the womb influence both finger length and sexual orientation.

They did this by looking at the hands of 720 men and women on the streets of San Francisco. The volunteers had their fingers measured and were asked questions about their sexual orientation and the number of older brothers and sisters in the family.

In women, the ring finger and index finger tend to be about the same length. In men, however, the index finger is usually the shorter of the two digits.

'Masculine' pattern

What the study showed was that lesbian women also tended to have the more "masculine" arrangement - that is, they had shorter index fingers.

But the ratio of finger sizes in men was more complicated. Comparisons between all men showed no differences. Only gay men with several older brothers had an unusually "masculine" finger ratio - in other words, they had significantly shorter index fingers.

Having a large number of older brothers had previously been established as a factor predisposing men to homosexuality, and like finger length reflects prenatal androgen exposure.

Homosexual men without older brothers had finger length ratios indistinguishable from heterosexual men, indicating that factors other than hormones - such as genetic influences - also contribute to sexual orientation.

"The results in men are more complicated but also more interesting," Dr Marc Breedlove, one of the researchers, told the BBC. This is because they suggest younger brothers are being exposed to higher levels of androgen in the womb than their elders.

Womb 'memory'

"We think it is inescapable that the mother's body is remembering how many sons she has carried before, and somehow she is then increasing the amount of androgen that each subsequent son sees before birth. So the fascinating questions are: where is the memory being stored in the mother's body and what is she doing to change amount of androgen that each subsequent son sees."

The Berkeley study has been published in Nature. Scientists in the UK have given it a cautious reception. They say far more work is required to back up some of the ideas contained in the research.

"I think this is a possibility," said Dr Richard Sharpe, of the human reproductive science unit at Edinburgh University. "But no-one has actually measured the levels of androgens in foetuses or the womb - you can imagine it is difficult to do - so this is all speculation. It may be informed speculation, but I think when we get on to a subject as touchy as sexual orientation we need to clearly define what is speculation and what is fact."

Dr Sharpe said animal studies had shown how female sex hormones could affect sexual differentiation in the brain and regulate sexual behaviour, but this had still to be proved in humans. It could well be different, he said


Length of Fingers Determine Sporting Ability and Sexuality

A number of studies have been carried to investigate how people’s individual characteristics correlate with their finger lengths. This article brings together some of the findings.

In recent years a number of studies have been carried to investigate how people’s individual characteristics correlate with their finger lengths. These studies have been based on comparisons between the length of the individual’s index finger and the length of their ring finger.

These studies have revealed correlations between finger lengths and individual characteristics such as testosterone levels, risk of heart attack, sporting ability, sexuality and even penile size.

In the majority of women, the index and ring fingers are almost equal in length. While in men, the ring finger is usually noticeably longer than the index finger.

In the largest study of its kind, carried out at Kings College London, it was shown that women with a longer ring finger were more likely to be good at sports such as tennis, swimming and skiing. However, the same study also showed a correlation between women with a longer index finger and an increased prowess in cricket, martial arts and gymnastics.

Male sporting ability can also be linked with finger length as revealed in a study carried out by John Manning of the University of Central Lancashire. John Manning’s findings revealed that men with longer index fingers are more likely to be better sportsmen.

Another discovery based on a study carried out solely on females was by a group of scientists from the University of California at Berkeley. This controversial study showed that lesbians showed a greater propensity to have a significant difference between their index finger and ring finger than was shown in heterosexual women.

It came to light in a study by the University of Alberta that men with short index fingers tended to be more aggressive which is linked to higher testosterone levels and a greater chance of heart attack in early adulthood.

A Greek scientist from the Naval and Veterans Hospital of Athens has discovered that the length of the index finger can accurately predict the length of the penis. It is claimed that these findings will help doctors counsel and treat men who suffer from perceived inadequacies in this area.

The University of Alberta study on males showed that finger length is dictated by womb environment. Men with several older brothers were shown to be more likely to have significantly shorter index fingers. This is thought to be due to the increased amount of androgen in the mother’s womb. However, Professor Spector’s study at Kings College, London, which was carried out on females, showed that finger length is 70% heritable and womb environment was revealed to have little influence on the length of the female fingers. Despite this, scientists are yet to discover a gene which dictates finger length

.

easuring people's finger patterns may reveal some surprising information.

Animal models have indicated that androgenic steroids acting before birth might influence the sexual orientation of adult humans. Here we examine the androgen-sensitive pattern of finger lengths1, and find evidence that homosexual women are exposed to more prenatal androgen than heterosexual women are; also, men with more than one older brother, who are more likely than first-born males to be homosexual in adulthood, are exposed to more prenatal androgen than eldest sons. Prenatal androgens may therefore influence adult human sexual orientation in both sexes, and a mother's body appears to 'remember' previously carried sons, altering the fetal development of subsequent sons and increasing the likelihood of homosexuality in adulthood.

In women, the index finger (2D, second digit) is almost the same length as the fourth digit (4D), although it may be slightly longer or shorter; in men, the index finger is more often shorter than the fourth. The greater 2D:4D ratio in females is established in two-year-olds1. Because all non-gonadal somatic sex differences in humans appearto be the result of fetal androgens that masculinize males3, the sex difference in the 2D:4D ratio probably reflects the prenatal influence of androgenon males4.

In an anonymous survey, 720 adults who were attending public street fairs in the San Francisco area were asked their gender, age, sexual orientation, handedness, and the number and gender of children their mother had carried before them. As expected, men have significantly longer fingers than women (P <>

This sex difference in 2D:4D is greater on the right hand than on the left (Fig. 1a), indicating that the right-hand 2D:4D is more sensitive to fetal androgens than the left-hand ratio. The right-hand 2D:4D ratio of homosexual women was significantly more masculine (that is, smaller) than that of heterosexual women, and did not differ significantly from that of heterosexual men. Thus finger ratios, like otoacoustic emissions5, suggest that at least some homosexual women were exposed to greater levels of fetal androgen than heterosexual women.

Figure 1 Finger-length patterns vary with gender, sexual orientation and birth order.

2D:4D ratio of homosexual men was not significantly different from that of heterosexual men for either hand (P > 0.09). However, segregating male subjects based on birth order provided support for the role of fetal androgens in male sexual orientation. The more older brothers a boy has, the more likely he is to develop a homosexual orientation2. Confirming these reports, we also found that only homosexual men had a greater than expected proportion of brothers (P<>

We found that the male 2D:4D ratio, which is unlikely to be influenced by social factors, also varies with the number of older brothers. The ratio was significantly more masculine in men with two or more older brothers than in men with no older brothers (Fig. 1b). There is also a significant correlation (r = -0.104; P <>

Our results suggest that events before birth (or even before conception in the case of older brothers) influence human sexual orientation. The masculinized right-hand 2D:4D ratio in homosexual women may reflect fetal androgen levels that are slightly higher than in heterosexual women. Homosexual men without older brothers have 2D:4D ratios indistinguishable from heterosexual eldest sons, indicating that factors other than fetal androgen (such as genetic influences8, 9) also contribute to sexual orientation. Finger measures indicate that men with more elder brothers, including those men who develop a homosexual orientation, might be exposed to greater than normal levels of prenatal androgen.

Although hyper-androgenization of homosexual men might not fit some cultural expectations10, homosexual men display several hyper-masculine characteristics, including a greater mean number of sexual partners in a lifetime than heterosexual men, who in turn report more sexual partners than do women of either orientation. Furthermore, reports that adult homosexual men have more circulating androgens (ref. 11, but see ref. 12), larger genitalia13 and more 'masculine' auditory evoked potentials than heterosexual men14, are consistent with at least some homosexual men being hyper-androgenized.

Although it is possible that the maternal influence on finger growth of subsequent sons occurs after birth, a prenatal influence seems more likely because of the extensive physiological pairing of mother and fetus. The locus of the maternal 'memory' for previous sons, and the mechanisms by which fetal development of subsequent sons is altered, remain unknown.

References
1.
Manning, J. T., Scutt, D., Wilson, J. & Lewis-Jones, D. I. Hum. Reprod. 13, 3000-3004 (1998). Links
2.
Blanchard, R. Annu. Rev. Sex Res. 8, 27-67 (1997). Links
3.
Breedlove, S. M., Cooke, B. M. & Jordan, C. L. Brain Behav. Evol. 54, 8-14 (1999). Links
4.
Manning, J. T., Trivers, R .L., Singh, D. & Thornhill, R. Nature 399, 214-215 (1999).
5.
McFadden, D. & Pasanen, E. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 95, 2709-2713 (1998). Links
6.
James, W. H. Hum. Biol. 59, 721-752 (1987). Links
7.
Bogaert, A. F. Behav. Neurosci. 111, 1395-1397 (1997). Links
8.
Bailey, J. M. & Pillard, R. C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 48, 1089-1096 (1991). Links
9.
Hamer, D. D., Hu, S., Magnuson, V. L., Hu, N. & Pattatucci, A. M. L. Science 261, 321-327 (1993). Links
10.
Gorman, M. R. Persp. Biol. Med. 38, 61-81 (1994).
11.
Brodie, H. K. H. et al. Am. J. Psychiatry 131, 82-83 (1974). Links
12.
Mayer-Bahlburg, H. F. L. Progr. Brain Res. 61, 375-398 (1984).
13.
Bogaert, A. F. & Hershberger, S. Arch. Sexual Behav. 28, 213-221 (1999).
14.
McFadden, D. & Champlin, C. A. J. Ass. Res. Otolaryngol. (in the press).

NewsWeek Press Release


Let Your Fingers Do the Talking

By B. J. Sigesmund
Newsweek, March 31, 2000

For Marc Breedlove, all it took was a Xerox
machine and a dream.

The University of California at Berkeley professor, who studies the biology of sexual orientation, took his copier and a few assistants to three street fairs in San Francisco last fall. His quest: to see if hormones in the womb might play a role in sexual behavior. At each event, he offered passersby a $1 lottery ticket in exchange for information regarding their sexual orientation and their birth order--and a copy of their palmprint. The psychologist collected data from 720 people.

The results, published this week in the journal Nature, stir the debate over whether homosexuality is learned, influenced or fixed by prenatal factors. Scientists have long believed that finger lengths may indicate the levels to which a fetus was exposed to male sex hormones, such as androgen, while in the womb. Now Breedlove's research indicates that both women's and men's finger lengths might signal sexual orientation, suggesting that hormonal exposure is one determining factor in sexuality. "We expected any such effects to be subtle because so many factors play a role in human behaviors," he says. "So we were excited to find [some] evidence."

Breedlove's team found that the women interviewed who identified themselves as lesbian tended on average to have "finger-ratios" that were more like men's. A person's finger-ratio is the index finger's length divided by the ring finger's length. In men, the average ratio is 0.95. For women, 0.97. Lesbians who participated, the Berkeley team found, scored 0.96.

The study of the finger-ratios of straight men and gay men who were interviewed proved more complicated. Breedloves researchers found no difference between the straight and gay men's finger-ratios until they separated the men by birth order. Then they found that gay males who had two or more older brothers had slightly lower ratios than those with no older brothers. And lower ratios in males are a possible indication of homosexuality, Breedlove believes.

Breedlove says his study corresponds to the work of an associate in his field, Ray Blanchard, who's shown that boys who have greater numbers of older brothers have a higher likelihood of being gay. Blanchard says he thinks Breedlove's study furthers the theory that hormones in the womb have an effect on the eventual sexual orientation of the fetus. "You can't learn your finger length, and your finger length is not a lifestyle choice," Blanchard says.

What's next? In order to further validate the research, another researcher must replicate Breedlove's exact findings in a second survey of both straight and gay people. Blanchard believes it won't be long. "You don't need an atom smasher," he says, "only a photocopier." Some lottery tickets wouldn't hurt either.

From the New Scientist Web Page



Do a person's fingers reveal their sexual
orientation?

YOUR early life as a fetus may have influenced your sexuality as an adult--and your fingers tell part of the story. Researchers in California have used relative finger lengths to show that sexual orientation is partly determined by events in the womb.

In animals, prenatal exposure to the male sex hormone testosterone seems to influence sexual orientation. But it is not easy to measure fetal hormone levels in humans. One indirect way is to look at the size of a person's fingers. In women, the index finger, called the second digit or 2D, is about the same length as the ring finger, 4D. In men, the ring finger is often considerably longer, leading to a lower 2D:4D ratio. This sex difference is clear from infancy, and researchers attribute it to masculinising hormones during fetal development.

Marc Breedlove and his colleagues at the University of California at Berkeley wanted to know if gay people had different finger length ratios from straight people, so they surveyed 720 adults during street fairs in San Francisco. The researchers collected information about gender, age, sexual orientation, handedness and older siblings. They also carefully measured the lengths of the volunteers' fingers.

They found something striking in gay women: their index to ring finger ratios resembled those of heterosexual men. This suggests that at least some lesbian women were exposed to higher than average levels of male hormones before birth.

What they found in men is less clear-cut. The 2D:4D ratio in gay men was not significantly different from that in straight men. But a series of studies in the 1990s had shown that the more older brothers a boy had, the more likely he was to be gay, so the researchers sorted the volunteers according to numbers of older brothers. They found that all the men who had two or more older brothers had significantly smaller 2D:4D ratios. "It was a big surprise to me that the finger measures would follow the epidemiology so closely," says Breedlove.

The findings suggest that homosexuality is partly due to higher levels of prenatal testosterone in men as well as women, he says. But they also show that fetal hormones alone don't determine sexuality. First-born males have indistinguishable 2D:4D ratios, whether they are gay or straight, yet some first-born males are gay. So other factors clearly come into play, says Breedlove.

To some researchers, the idea that gay men are "hypermasculinised" seems counterintuitive. John Manning of the University of Liverpool has found the opposite in gay men: that their finger ratios veer more towards the feminine. He suspects that both very low and very high levels of testosterone in the womb could produce homosexuality. "There may be more than one phenotype of male gays," he says.

Manning also wonders if Breedlove's data may have been slightly muddied because the research did not take account of ethnicity. He has found big population variations in 2D:4D ratios. "The geographical differences swamp the sex differences," says Manning. "There's more difference between a Pole and a Finn than between a man and a woman."

Interview with Marc Breedlove

http://www.eastbayexpress.com/archive/092200/cover1_092200.html

We did not find a difference between gay and straight men in ring-to-index-finger ratios, but we did find a more masculine ratio in men who had more than one older brother when compared to men who had no older brothers, which suggests that the more older brothers you have, the greater your testosterone exposure in the womb. This is especially interesting because there are a lot of data sets that look at men’s sexual orientation and number of older brothers, and all of them show that gay men tend to have more older brothers than the rest of the population. For the rest of the population, the ratio is 106 brothers to 100 sisters, whether older or younger. In our survey, gay men had 140 older brothers for every 100 older sisters, but for younger brothers and sisters, for gays the figure is also 106 to 100, as with the rest of the population.

Blanchard estimates that about fifteen percent of the men who are gay in North America are gay because they have older brothers. If their mother had had fewer boys before them, they would be straight today. Fifteen percent is a significant number. And think of it politically. Why on earth should people have hundreds of fewer legal rights and be unable to marry the person they fall in love with just because their mom had sons before them?

Length of fingers 'is clue to sex orientation'

By Steve Connor, Science Editor

The length of a child's fingers can point to whether he or she is likely to be gay in later life, according to a study linking finger patterns to sexual orientation.

The length of a child's fingers can point to whether he or she is likely to be gay in later life, according to a study linking finger patterns to sexual orientation.

Scientists believe the findings reveal a link between levels of exposure to sex hormones during foetal development and established differences in finger lengths between men and women.

In women, the index finger - or forefinger - is typically almost the same length as the ring finger, or fourth digit. In men, the index finger is more often shorter than the ring finger. The effects tend to be greater on the right hand.

This difference between the sexes is established at the age of two. Because all sex differences in pre-pubescent children are the result of exposure to male sex hormones, or androgens, in the womb, scientists believe finger differences are also due to differential exposures to foetal androgens.

The new study indicates that the relative lengths or ratios of the index finger and ring finger can also predict whether a woman is likely to be a lesbian and whether a man is likely to be homosexual, provided the number of his elder brothers is taken into account.

"The results suggest that events before birth influence our sexual orientation in adulthood," said Marc Breedlove, a psychologist at the University of California, Berkeley, who led the study, published in Nature.

"The effects are subtle, so you cannot accurately classify individuals' orientations, or even their sex, based on finger ratios. But the law of big numbers tells us that even such subtle effects, when applied to large populations, will make a difference," he said.

Interviews with 720 people who had their fingers measured showed that women who said they were lesbians had a more masculine ratio of finger lengths, with a shorter index finger relative to ring finger. This suggests that gay women were on average exposed to greater levels of androgens in the womb than heterosexual men.

"The results were more complicated, but more interesting in men," Professor Breedlove said. "Gay men as a group did not differ from straight men. But if we classify men based on a factor known to influence orientation, birth order, we see a difference."

Earlier work by Ray Blanchard, of Toronto University, found that the greater the number of older brothers a boy has, the greater his chances of being gay in adulthood. Even with six or seven older brothers, the probabilities are still low enough for most of these boys to be heterosexual. But the effect, although subtle, has been repeatedly shown.

Professor Breedlove said: "We found that men with older brothers also had more masculine finger ratios than did eldest sons.

"So we think that the more older brothers a boy has, the more foetal androgens the boy will be exposed to.

"While the majority of such later-borns grow up to be heterosexual, they are more likely than first-borns to be gay and we think the increased levels of foetal androgen are responsible for this increased probability. I think there are some men out there who are gay because they were later-born. That is, if they had received the same genes, same family, same neighbourhood etcetera, but been their mother's first son, they would be straight today


Finger Length Helps Predict Test Exam Results, Homosexuality, Cancer, Musical Ability and Aggressive Personality -- Study Shows

Your finger length can predict how you will do on various tests in school. They can also tell if you are likely to be homosexual or straight, if you will likely get certain cancers, be a musician, writer or a scientist, or if you will have an aggresssive or passive personality.The two fingers that are important are the index finger -- the one you use to point to something -- and the ring finger.

Reading, writing and arithmetic...

In a recent study, the results of mathematics and literacy (reading) tests for seven-year-old children could be predicted by measuring the length of these two fingers.

In a study to be published in the British Journal of Psychology, scientists compared the finger lengths of 75 children with their Standardised Assessment Test (SAT) scores. They found a clear link between a child's performance in numeracy and literacy tests and the relative lengths of their index (pointing) and ring fingers.

Scientists believe that the link is caused by different levels of the hormones testosterone and estrogen in the womb -- and the effect they have on both brain development and finger length. This is nothing new, since scientists have known for many years that elevated levels of testosterone -- or other hormones closely resembling testosterone -- can cause the brains of both males and females to be more "masculine."

It has long been known that boys tend to do better on math tests while girls do better at writing, reading and verbal tests.

"Testosterone has been argued to promote development of the areas of the brain which are often associated with spatial and mathematical skills," said Dr Mark Brosnan, Head of the Department of Psychology at the University of Bath, who led the study.

"Estrogen is thought to do the same in the areas of the brain which are often associated with verbal ability. "Interestingly, these hormones are also thought have a say in the relative lengths of our index and ring fingers.

"We can use measurements of these fingers as a way of gauging the relative exposure to these two hormones in the womb and as we have shown through this study, we can also use them to predict ability in the key areas of numeracy and literacy."

How they did the research

The researchers made photocopies of the palm of the children's hands and then measured the length of their index finger and ring finger on both hands using callipers, accurate to 0.01mm. They then divided the length of the index finger by that of the ring finger -- to calculate the child's digit ratio.

When they compared this ratio to the children's SAT scores, they found that a smaller ratio (i.e. a longer ring finger and therefore greater prenatal exposure to testosterone) meant a larger difference between ability in maths and literacy, favouring math skills relative to reading and speaking skills.

When they looked at boy's and girl's performance separately, the researchers found a clear link between high prenatal testosterone exposure, as measured by digit ratio, and higher numeracy SAT scores in males.

Previously, researchers have found a link between index and ring finger lengths and homosexuality (see article in viewzone.)

They also found a link between low prenatal testosterone exposure, which resulted in a shorter ring finger compared with the index finger, and higher literacy SAT scores for girls.

This, says the scientists behind the study, suggests that measurements of finger length could help predict how well children will do in maths and literacy.

"We're not suggesting that finger length measurements could replace SAT tests," said Dr Brosnan.

"Finger ratio provides us with an interesting insight into our innate abilities in key cognitive areas.

"We are also looking at how digit ratio relates to other behavioural issues, such as technophobia [fear of science], and career paths.

There is also interest in using digit ratio to identify homosexuality, developmental disorders, such as dyslexia, which can be defined in terms of literacy deficiencies, and aggressive vs. passive personalitity traits.

Other interesting observations about finger length:

Bodily characteristics that develop in distinctly masculine and feminine ways are usually the product of sex hormones. Some features differentiate at puberty, such as breasts, muscle development and jaws. But other sex differences are already set by the time we're born, relative finger lengths among them, and seem to be the result of fetal androgens (hormones such as testosterone or related hormones) masculinising the males. some of those hormones come from fetal testes and adrenal glands, the rest make it across the placenta from the blood of the mother. But exactly how much comes from whom -- and what alters the balance -- are still not entirely understood.

"Prenatal development is a black box," says John Manning of the University of Liverpool. He is one of a small number of scientists beginning to wonder if fingers could be used as a way of peering into that "box."

Finger lengths may predict cancer!

In a paper just published in the journal Medical Hypotheses (vol. 54, p 855), Manning highlights conditions such as heart disease, breast cancer, autism and dyslexia. Both heart disease (in men) and breast cancer have been linked with high levels of the female hormones Eestrogen and Progesterone. Most of the studies of this link have looked at circulating levels in the adult, but evidence is mounting that too much of the wrong hormone in the womb, before birth, may be the real culprit.

Oimitrios Tricopouos, an epidemiologist at Harvard University, proposed a decade ago that breast cancer may originate in the uterus of the mother (The Lancet, vol. 335, p 939). He suggested that high concentrations of estrogen may create a "fertile soil" for cancer to develop later in life. He also thought that variability in estrogen levels during pregnancy may help to explain why breast cancer rates are generally higher in women born to Caucasian mothers compared with those born to Oriental or younger mothers. Recently he and his colleague Karin Michels showed that high birth weight in girls-another sign of high prenatal estrogen levels-was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

If high estrogen levels are indeed to blame, Manning thinks that high 2D (see illustration) ratios could be used to identify women who are at increased risk of breast cancer. "I don't know of other sexually dimorphic traits that are so stable," he says. "That's what makes it so exciting." He interviewed 118 women in a breast cancer clinic, measured their finger lengths and noted how old they were when the first tumour appeared. "It was earlier if there was a higher ratio," he says.

Finger length linked to left-handedness!

The developing brain is also sensitive to hormones in utero. Knowing this, Norman Geschwind and his graduate student Albert Galaburda, now at Harvard Medical School, made a controversial claim in 1985. They suggested that prenatal testosterone slows the growth of certain areas of the left hemisphere and facilitates the growth of corresponding regions of the right hemisphere. At the time they wondered whether testosterone was partly to blame for such things as left-handedness, dyslexia and autism (Archives of Neurology, vol43,p 428).

Galaburda and his colleagues have since developed a way to induce selective brain damage to the frontal lobe of newborn rats to mimic some of the symptoms of dyslexia. Curiously, while male rats with this kind of damage have trouble responding to rapidly changing sounds -- much like dyslexic humans -- females don't. "We induce the malformations in males and females," he says, "but only the males have trouble."

It is clear that there is a "genetic component" to dyslexia. But Galaburda thinks fetal testosterone plays a role too by reducing plasticity in the young brain, making males, susceptible to brain malformations that females manage to overcome.

Intriguingly, when female rats are given extra testosterone, they too show signs of dyslexia.

Ratios of 2nd digit (index finger) to 4th digit (ring finger).

Manning hasn't yet checked the finger lengths of human dyslexics to see whether they also point to a testosterone link. But he has already checked out the left-handed idea, using a dexterity test. People are not always straightforwardly right or left- handed: many have been trained to use their right hand for writing, even if they are more skilled with the left. So Manning and his colleagues tested how quickly 285 children could move 10 pegs from one row of holes to another row five inches away, using one or the other hand.

Children with low 2D:4D ratios (see illustration) are believed to have high exposure to testosterone in the womb and are more likely to be quicker with their left hands than the kids with higher ratios. This, he says, suggests that our degree of left-handedness (and more generally the way the brain divides up tasks between left and right hemispheres) may be influenced by hormone levels in the womb.

Finger Length & Autism

Manning has begun examining autism too. He teamed up with Simon Baron- Cohen and Svetlana Lutchmaya from the University of Cambridge, who have used samples of amniotic fluid to directly measure the levels of hormones that babies are exposed to in the womb. When the children reached their first birthday, the researchers measured their vocabularies and ability to make eye contact. Poor language skills and an unwillingness to make eye contact are early hallmarks of autism. They found that babies who'd been exposed to high levels of testosterone in the womb fared the worst.

"What we're hoping to look at is whether finger ratios can be used as a proxy for hormones," says Lutchmaya. Amniocentesis (sampling the amniotic fluic surrounding the unborn baby) is a risky procedure that only a few mothers choose to undergo, she says. But by measuring finger lengths instead, researchers can assess a random sample of children for possible early signs of impaired language and social skill development. Currently, they are checking the fingers of children for whom they have amniotic samples.

Meanwhile, Manning and Baron-Cohen have looked at the finger ratios of 49 children with firm diagnoses of autism, 23 with a mild form of the disorder called Asperger's syndrome, and their families. The researchers found that autistic children tended to have very low 2D:4D ratios (see illustration). Interestingly, children with Asperger's syndrome had ratios that fell between those of autistics and unaffected children. "It fits exceptionally well with the theory," says Manning.

Clearly genes play a role too in these conditions. But could fetal hormone levels explain other cognitive differences between the sexes? Janel Tortorice at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, thinks they may. She has measured finger ratios in 2D:4D ratio (see illustration) gay women and found that their hands were significantly different from those of heterosexual women-in fact, they tend to resemble those of heterosexual men.

But she has also found differences in the way these women's brains work. "They have more masculine fingers and more masculine cognition," she says. On tests of spatial and verbal ability, lesbian volunteers perform more like men than heterosexual women, she says. If this can be confirmed by further studies, perhaps Manning's most recent suggestion is not as outrageous as it sounds. He claims that musical talent, too, is nurtured in the womb.

Finger lengths foretell musical ability!

Manning recruited 54 male musicians from a British symphony orchestra. He discovered that these men had significantly lower 2D:4D ratios than controls -- they had a very "masculine" ratio. Even more striking, when he compared the top-ranked "first" musicians with their lower-ranked colleagues -- a measure of their relative ability-the former had significantly lower 2D:4D ratios. Could testosterone really predispose the brain to be more tuned in to music? Manning thinks so.

Musicians with short ring fingers and lesbians with long index fingers needn't lose heart, however. Even if fingers win a place in the pantheon of diagnostic medicine, it's unlikely that prospective employers or partners will ever be able to predict our fortunes from our hands. Tortorice reminds us that males tend to be taller than females. "But," she says; "we don't use height to determine whether you're a man or a woman."

How well does this apply to YOUR fingers? We'd like to know.